Tuesday, October 28, 2014

God Only Knows how they did it

Last week FXGuide put an excellent article on behind the scene of ‘God Only Knows’ - BBC Music
Fist watch the wonderful Promo

How do you bring together almost 30 famous musicians and have them sing – in a single place – a remake of The Beach Boys’ ‘God Only Knows’? That’s the task the BBC set itself to help launch BBC Music, with butterflies and bubbles and a Bengal tiger all thrown in for good measure. With skilled CG and compositing artistry The Mill helped construct the Francois Rousselet-directed promo, via Karmarama and Redbee Media, in just over eight weeks and with around 30 artists, combining footage of artists shot over a year into one location – Alexandra Palace – as well as crafting the digital elements. Visual effects supervisor/2D lead artist Hugo Guerra and fellow 2D lead artist Zoe Cassey-Hayes tell us how and we showcase a large collection of behind the scenes photos and video.

Planning the promo: “It was very complicated to organize and from a logistically point of view very challenging,” says Guerra. “We made a storyboard early on but because of artist availability we had to be very flexible with the story and sometimes decisions had to happen very close to the shoot days.

Filming approach: “The filming started in late 2013 with Sir Elton John and finished with David Grohl in the summer of 2014,” notes Guerra. “All in all I was on set 12 times for almost 1 year to film all the pieces of this huge puzzle. All the twenty-seven music stars were filmed on a green screen in several locations. We had to be very careful on set making sure everything was photographed and logged so we could replicate camera moves, lens info, lighting setups, matching scale and colour temperature. Both me, David Fleet (Joint Head of 3D) of and Luke Colson (EP) had many meetings with the DOPs, set designers and the director making sure everything was working since sometimes we filmed elements several months apart of each other.”

Alexandra Palace environments: Guerra: “The matte painting team lead by Can Y. Sanalan worked on creating the Alexandra Palace backdrops, as well as conceptualising and creating the final ethereal cloud scenes from scratch. We photographed thousands of photos onset of textures, HDRI’s and lighting references of Alexandre Palace to help the team create the backdrops. Most of them where then composited with the help of set extension and projection done in Flame and NUKE’s 3D systems.”

Lorde’s wings: “The CG wings were masterfully created and animated by our 3D artist Adam Droy,” says Cassey-Hayes. “First of all they had to be lit to match Lorde’s plate. When it came to the comp, however, we also wanted to create a bit of back lighting through the wings the help them feel a little lighter and transparent in the thinner areas around the bottom.”

How Brian Wilson met a tiger: “We built a huge forest set for Brian Wilson with NUKE’s 3D system using hundreds of 2D layers of leaves, forest parts, plants, etc all filmed onset after we finished filming Florence’s forest shots,” explains Guerra. “We used the same technique for Stevie Wonder.”

Kylie Minogue’s bubbles: “The bubbles were created in Maya by 3D artist Jules Janaud,” notes Cassey-Hayes. “We used images captured on set to create reflections and to help light the bubbles. However, this did not always give us the most beautiful look we were trying to achieve. We had to try numerous times to create bubbles that not only looked the part, but also felt like they were realistically within the scene they were composited into. Amongst reflections we wanted to create a petrol in water effect – which added colour and texture without obscuring our heroine Kylie sat within. She was put through the same refraction process that we would expect to see looking through a bubble to help bed her in.

Clouds and balloons: States Cassey-Hayes: “Our CG cloud lead was artist Adam Droy, who created them using Houdini. The were very unpredictable and difficult to control, so forward planning was imperative and we had to have concept drawings and layouts locked down early in the process to give us time to experiment with things like movement and density within the clouds. As we know all the artists were shot on green screen and making them look part of the environment was a task in itself. Careful painstaking compositing involving flares, colour correction and even cheating the lighting were all tricks we used to achieve this.

Using The Foundry’s HIERO: “It was a big part of the process, I used HIERO on every conform, VFX editorial task, client review and WIP generation during the entire production. Our R&D team has developed a very strong HIERO pipeline in The Mill so it was great to use it in this project, especially because of the fast way it can update the timeline with new versions.”

You can read full article here
and you can watch more Behind the scenes

Thursday, October 16, 2014

How a VFX Supervisor will save you a tonne of money.

Hasraf Dulull  taught a wonderful course on VFX at Raindance Festival. From his notes, here is a article from Raindance website.

VFX and SFX is the fun bit of filmmaking, right? Explosions that look cool and blow up everything on the screen, they can make Harry Potter and the Gryffindor Quidditch Team fly around, turn Ian McKellen into Gandalf and just about anything else you can think of. But why should you even bother considering thinking about this unless you’re going to blow up The Rock at the end of your film? Well, let me tell you…


These days you can’t just write a high concept script and expect a meeting. So why not get a VFX Supervisor on board from the start. It can progress the project towards a more creative and interesting one as well as luring in better actors. Not only that but if you’re looking to get some funding for a project even bigger, It’s a way to get your trailer noticed at festivals without breaking the almost non-existent bank.

Getting the Green Light.

The studio loves you, you’re gonna be the next big thing, you’re on your way to getting your teeth whitened as you read this, but the studio has asked you to budget accordingly for the production…

So why not bring in a VFX supervisor sooner rather than later and save the struggle of unexpected costs and hassle later on.

Why would I even bother?

It can not only save you money but can also help you be as creative as you want to be without your ideas running away and spending all of your budget on that crucial title sequence that you want to explode out of a skyscraper in New York. They can also help you to test out cameras, lenses and locations as well as advising you on what to do in SFX, VFX and what not to do at all (avoid Go-pro or 7D footage for heavy VFX work that requires tracking, green-screen, low-lights etc, it’s just not good)

What about my script?

Well your script can be easily broken down by your best mate/VFX Supervisor (the are the same person) and they can identify the visual effects and special effects within the script, breaking them down into scenes with ball park costs. Again, it’s all about that budget of yours and how precious it is!

Tips on saving more monies!

- Don’t use rigs/reflective objects/anything of the sort in the shot expecting post to be able to sort it out. It’ll cost you time and too much money.

-Same goes for anything else that you think can just be rubbed on in post. If it can be easily moved out of the shot in 10 minutes then it’s going to be much cheaper/quicker and more than likely better than using the eraser tool.

-Every cinephile loves 35mm, but unless you’re Nolan or Tarantino it’s just going to be a waste of money. To edit it in post it needs to be scanned and blah blah blah. It’s just not worth it. Treat yourself when you have more money.

-Speaking of saving money, budget to have a VFX supervisor on set for the duration of the shoot. If anything goes wrong it doesn’t cost you all of your budget for the day.

-Stock footage is your friend! You might want to splash out and get your VFX supervisor to create some CGI explosions, but why do that when you can purchase stock footage, do a bit of grading and then integrate it into your own shots for a more realistic and less tacky approach to explosions. It’s also a great way to find good quality establishing shots that only need a small amount of VFX to bring out a couple of features that make it yours.

Filmmaking is all about planning and storytelling. Use VFX to help tell your story and plan it so that no production company can ever pick it apart!

you can read more about it on http://www.raindance.org

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Starting Blog Again After 6 Long years. Saying Hello to ?? - is anyone still reading this blog ;)

I am posting in this blog after 6 years,  My last blog-post was on October 8, 2008 and today is 15th October :) . So i don't know anybody reading my blog or not BUT if you are reading this please do comment and say back hello.
From now on i will be post regularly and effectively.

i started this blog when i was student of VFX and want to share what i find interesting back then. but not able to keep it up because i am no longer a student :( . From VFX I jumped in to film making, even tried my hand in to direction and doing editing stuff also AND doing many boring work for earning money :(.

same days before comeback to my blog and see that many people still reading blog even some peoples giving good comments about blog as recently as past year. Even i did't open my blog from tow years ;) .

so decided from now on i will be posting My experience & Knowledge what little i have. as i am more in to film making now'a'days, i will post VFX techniques & Tips as director's point of view.

so here is my first post after 6 Years

Thanks and have Good Day
Pankaj Pratap

*don't forget to say hello to me :).

Wednesday, October 8, 2008

Techniques of Wire Removal

  • General Techniques for Wire Removal
1. Wire Removal By Painting Frame By Frame
The primary comment made about wire removal is "we'll just paint it out in post." But painting out on a per frame basis is extremely difficult when done over a series of frames, potentially causing the images to seem as if they are boiling. While a clone tool works well on a single frame, the lack of frame to frame cohesion means the 'fix' boils and becomes very visible once the clip is played. Of course there are times that wires are only catching the light for a moment,  and thus an isolated frame is still very effectively fixed by a manual painting, either by cloning or delicate painting. Cloning is much more effective, as it clones not just colour but grain or noise that is also almost always present.

2. Rig Removal By Patching Over The Top

One solution using this method is based on finding a clean frame from some other point in the clip and  pasting it over the top of the offensive rig or wire. This works best on static cameras, and does not work on people in movement. Since the fill for the patch is static, considerations need to be made for grain and noise. Various tricks can used to solve this, including compounding or averaging several clean frames, reducing the grain/noise so it can be reintroduced at a later stage.

Another approach is to patch the wire and then use this new clip as a "reveal back to" clip in a manual painting environment, or roto the patch back in with finer attention to detail than the main patch. This has the advantage of replacing the minimum amount of the overall image but can suffer if there are other light changes that the 'patch' is not matching and tracking in terms of colour.

At its most extreme implementation, the patch approach becomes a 2D environment replacement which we discuss later.

3. Stabilise and Paint Back

One approach to solving a moving shot is to stabilize the image, fix it, and then invert the stabilization. If a wire is moving relative to the background, this approach can be very effective. Once the background is stable, the artist can paint back to a previous frame where the line or wire isn't seen. So unlike painting back to a still as in the patch version discussed previously, the artist paints back to moving clip offset in space to the foreground. This 'moving reveal' can be slightly noticeable when done at this stage but when the original camera motion is reintroduced it can seem flawless.

Problems arise with motion blur. A stablised image still has the blur contained inside that frame from any original camera movement. If this is offset in time - the foreground may have a different camera motion blur than the offset clip below at any point in time. Reveling the 'offset background' will then revel the wrong amount of blur, which can be a problem.

4. Roto Clone Tools/Source NodesTo solve the problems in approach one (manual painting), there are faster computer-assisted approaches to cloning and painting. A common approach is to create an accurate matte of the wire or rig via rotoscoping. This matte is used to cut a hole in the iamage. To fill the hole, the same frame is slid or shifted to reaveal a part of the frame that is wire-free. In flame this is done by using source nodes, which move the matte or foreground independently of each other. There are many similar approaches available in other applications.

The reason this approach works so well is that it matches motion blur or light changes since each frame draws from the same frame for the fix. It can be thought of as a dynamically updating patch approach. The disadvantage is the issue with sharp edge transitions. Since the entire wire matte region is replaced with the same scale patch, what works on camera right may not align camera left or vice versa. This means that some shots work amazingly well, but a very similar shot with different structural solid lines at a differents angle may produce very poor results.

5. Automated Tools: Matador to FurnaceMatador
This early paint product had specialized roto, paint and wire removal. Matador was originally developed by British developer Parralax, and was acquired by Avid along with Parralaxs compositing application Illusion. Available only on the SGI platform and priced around $15,000, Matador was one of the first digital rotoscoping tools which gained a wide acceptance in the film post production pipeline. Matador started as a tool made for editing still images, so many of the tools used for motion work were not well thought out. Matador provides excellent matte creation tools including b-splines, motion tracking, and a full set of painting and cloning tools, with full 16bit/channel support. Avid stopped development of Matador in the late 90's.

The original developers tried to spin it off into a new company called Blue, but that never took off. Matador had strong wire tools that allowed for median painting that would remove a wire from a frame via a brush that performed median filtering.


Developed by Scott Squires,  at the time an Industrial Light and Magic visual effects supervisor, Commotion was used for years at ILM before Squires formed Puffin Designs and released it to the public. Commotion, then called Flipbook, was sighted often at ILM and mistakenly referred to as the “secret ILM motion version of Photoshop. Though Commotion looked very similar to Photoshop in some respects, Commotions interface and tools were designed for moving images, and was the first tool on the desktop to offer realtime ram based playback. This realtime core functionality was the foundation for all of the wire removal tools added as the product developed.

Advanced wire removal tools include raster based paint, spatial and temporal cloning, clone to center wire removal tools (which painted from the outside of the brush stoke to the center of the same brush stroke), auto-paint, unlimited bezier and natural cubic b-splines, motion blur on rotosplines, and a very fast and accurate motion tracker. Commotion quickly became the de-facto roto tool in the industry, replacing Matador in most post facilities. Commotion curves could even be exported and imported into AfterEffects. Puffin Designs was acquired by Pinnacle Systems in 2000, but sadly development has stopped on the product. All the original developers left and no new work ever been done on the product.

Most paint work done in the wire removal process is used for touching up film or video footage. This includes removing wires and rigs, removing logos, dust busting, scratch removal, etc. Clearly, roto plays a key role in solutions beyond hand painting. Roto-based approaches have the huge advantage in that they are repeatable, or able to be rendered, so a shot can be reworked without requiring starting from scratch. Roto is therefore often central to any wire removal process. In these circumstances, the roto tool must provide a procedural temporal and/or spatial cloning. Spatial cloning is a type of cloning which takes pixels from one position of the frame, and paints the source onto another position on the frame. Photoshop's rubber stamp tool is an example of spatial cloning, but it is not easily automated. Temporal cloning allows one to paint pixels from one frame in a sequence to another frame. Commotion's Super Clone tool is an example of temporal cloning.

A good wire/roto tool should provide both of these options so users can offset position and frame number together. Other cloning tools include wire removal tools which allow you to draw a line to zip out a wire. Typically, wire removal tools clone pixels from a specified value on either side of the line, then smear the outside pixels together to cover up the wire or scratch. More advanced wire removal tools will add advanced cloning techniques to the wire removal process. For example, Commotion looks at a specified number of pixels on either side of the line, flips those pixel values then cross dissolves to cover up the wire.


One of the few companies to aggressively try and produce specific wire removal tools is The Foundry in London. Released initially as plugins for Flame, The Foundry now produces a large variety of solutions for a range of applications such as Shake and Nuke.

The Foundry's Furnace tools are based on producing a rotoscoped or animated spline path that can then have a variety of techniques deployed. The Foundry's spline defines the shape of the wire (straight or curved) and the width. It will then use one of four techniques to clone, average, clone to center or temporally remove the wire. In so doing it attempts to not remove film grain and instead just replace the wire. The techniques increase in computational complexity, and are generally agreed to be currently some of the best implementations anywhere, "best in class".

It is openly agreed - even by The Foundry, - that the tools are not one button press fixes that always work perfectly. Rather, the logic is that the wire removal tools can successfully remove a large amount of unwanted wire, but the last 20 percent will need manual or human intervention. As you can hear in this week's fxpodcast, nearly all professional wire removers use Furnace for this reason, and universally agree that getting the job 80% done is invaluable. However, there is a significant gap between any computer solution and an acceptable feature film final shot.

MokeyAs the task of wire removal extends to rig removal, The Foundry and companies such as Imagineer Systems also produce planar trackers. These trackers are widely used to solve wire and rig removal but are not solely aimed at these tasks. Imagineering produces a set of very impressive planar tracker solutions such as Mocha which will track a region of a shot. These regional tracking approaches allow much better "patch' style solutions since the 'patch' can now move in three dimensions and much more seamlessly blend with the original plate.

Imagineering also produces automated roto tools such as Mokey which can aid in separating an object from the background. The combination of this and rotoscoping allow the 2D and 3D environment techniques discussed next to work well. Products such as Mocha and Mokey are not wire removal tools in and of themselves but impressive and valuable tools that aid more advanced solutions which would otherwise be impractical.

7. 2D Background Replacement
Some of the most advanced solutions do not try and minimize the region of the frame which is being painted or retouched. Rather, they remove the entire background and replace it with a clean background tracked in 2D to look real. An example would be wire work done for a martial arts film. In these films extensive wire work is often required. Chinese senior VFX artist August Zhuang gave the example of a fight on wires staged in a small clearing, in front of bamboo. The complex nature of the vertical bamboo made many techniques fails and the amount of complex wires and rigs needed to be removed meant the shot was always going to be very complex. Rather than tackle the wires individually, Zhuang and his team roto-ed the actors off the background and then replaced it.

Using multiple frames from the sequence which revealed clean sections of the background, the team was able to piece together a single long panorama of the bamboo clearing. They would then track this matte painting back in to every shot, replacing the original background with a nearly identical flat 2D cyclorama without any wires. They were careful to create accurate 2D tracks and apply the correct amount of motion blur on each shot. This approach proved more effective and less time consuming than wire removing 20 individual wires one at a time.

8. 3D Environment Replacement

The logical extension of 2D set replacement is full 3D set replacement. Some productions choose to start this way and film the original plate on greenscreen, while others seek more realistic lighting by filming without greenscreen and manually rotoscoping all the key elements such as actors, and then dropping in 3D behind them. In cases where primary plate photography is not greenscreen,2D background replacement techniques such as the ones listed above can be used and the matte painting is projected or mapped over 3D geometry to allow more complex 3d spatial camera moves. 3D environment replacement has grown in popularity in large part to the advances in 3D tracking and 3D automated camera software from companies such as Pixel Farm, 2d3, Syntheyes, Realviz and 3d Equaliser.

For Die Hard 4, the elevator shaft behind Bruce Willis was extended and a virtual 3D set added to build out from the real set. The set extension had to be three dimensional to work with the complex camera moves that the team at the Orphanage was presented with. The shot works due to the quality of the wire removal on the foreground, the accuracy of the roto, and the skill of the Orphanage's 3D team in matching the lighting and textures so accurately.

In this week's podcast we speak to Aaron Rhodes, the Roto/Paint Supervisor at the Orphanage. We discuss the approaches below in terms of the real world of feature films and the Orphanage's work on Die Hard 4 in particular.

Sourse :- vfguide

Saturday, July 19, 2008

2007 - 2008 Primetime Emmy Awards nominations revealed

Animated shows from FOX, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon are all in contention for an Emmy this year.
Heroes, Battlestar Galactica and others are in the running for the big VFX awards.
On Sunday, September 21 at 8 pm the telecast awarding Primetime Emmys in 29 categories will be presented before a black-tie audience and televised by the ABC Television Network from the NOKIA Theatre, Los Angeles live.

Outstanding Special Visual Effects For A Series

BATTLESTAR GALACTICA "He That Believeth In Me" -- Sci Fi Channel -- Universal Media Studios in association with R & D TV
Gary Hutzel, Visual Effects Supervisor
Michael Gibson, Visual Effects Producer
David Takemura, Visual Effects Coordinator
Doug Drexler, CGI Supervisor
Kyle Toucher, CG Artist
Sean Jackson, CG Artist
Pierre Drolet, CG Modeler
Aurore de Blois, Senior Compositor
Derek Ledbetter, Compositor

HEROES -- "Four Months Ago" -- NBC -- Universal Media Studios in association with Tail Wind Productions
Eric Grenaudier, Visual Effects Supervisor
Mark Spatny, Visual Effects Producer
Gary D’Amico, Special Effects Supervisor
Mike Enriquez, Lead CGI Artist
Michael Cook, Lead CGI Artist
Diego Galtieri, Lead Visual Effects Compositor
Ryan Wieber, Lead Visual Effects Compositor
Chris Martin, Lead Visual Effects Compositor
Daniel Kumiega, Lead CGI Animator

HUMAN BODY: PUSHING THE LIMITS -- "Strength" -- Discovery Channel -- Dangerous Films Ltd. in association with Discovery Channel
Tim Goodchild, Visual Effects Supervisor
Louise Hussey, Visual Effects Producer
Mike Tucker, Special Effects Supervisor
Nick Kool, Lead Model Maker
Hayden Jones, CGI Supervisor
Mark Pascoe, Lead CGI Artist
Angela Noble, Lead CGI Artist
Peter Tyler, Visual Effects Cameraman

JERICHO -- "Patriots And Tyrants" -- CBS -- CBS Paramount Television M
Andrew Orloff, Visual Effects Supervisor
Blythe Dalton, Visual Effects Producer
John Stirber, Special Effects Supervisor
Chris Jones, Compositing Supervisor
Michael Cliett, CGI Supervisor
Lane Jolly, Lead Visual Effects Compositor
Johnathan R. Banta, Lead Matte Artist
Josh Hooker, Lead CGI Artist

STARGATE ATLANTIS -- "Adrift" -- Sci Fi Channel -- Pegasus III
Mark Savela, Visual Effects Supervisor
Shannon Gurney, Visual Effects Coordinator
Erica Henderson, Lead Visual Effects Compositor
Jason Gross, CGI Supervisor
Jamie Yukio Kawano, Lead CGI Artist
Michael Lowes, Lead CGI Artist
Giles Hancock, Lead Matte Artist
Jeremy Kehler, Lead Visual Effects Compositor
Daniel Osaki, Lead Model Maker

TERMINATOR: THE SARAH CONNOR CHRONICLES -- "Pilot" -- FOX -- C2 Pictures in association with Warner Bros. Television
James Lima, Visual Effects Supervisor
Chris Zapara, CG Supervisor
Lane Jolly, Compositing Supervisor
Steve Graves, 3D Modeler/Animator
Rick Schick, Compositor
Jeff West, Compositor
Bradley Mullennix, Modeler

Outstanding Special Visual Effects For A Miniseries, Movie Or A Special

COMANCHE MOON -- "Part 1" -- CBS -- The Firm/Sony Pictures Television/CBS Paramount
Scott Ramsey, Visual Effects Supervisor
Randy Moore, Special Effects Supervisor
Chris Martin, Visual Effects Compositor
Megan Omi, Visual Effects Compositor
Richard Sachar, Visual Effects Compositor
Ragui Hanna, Visual Effects Compositor
Daniel Kumiega, Visual Effects Animator
Cedric Tomacruz, Matte Painter
Kristin Johnson, Matte Painter

THE COMPANY -- "Part 2" -- TNT -- Scott Free/John Callery Productions in association with Sony Pictures Television
Viktor Muller, Visual Effects Supervisor
Vit Komrzy, Visual Effects Producer
Jan Vseticek, Visual Effects Coordinator
Miro Gal, Lead Digital Compositor
Peter Nemec, Lead Digital Compositor
Jiri Stamfest, Lead Digital Matte Painter
Jaroslav Matys, Lead 3D Digital Artist

JOHN ADAMS -- "Join Or Die" -- HBO -- Playtone in association with HBO Films
Erik Henry, Visual Effects Supervisor
Jeff Goldman, Visual Effects Supervisor
Paul Graff, Visual Effects Supervisor
Steve Kullback, Visual Effects Producer
Christina Graff, Visual Effects Producer
David Van Dyke, Visual Effects Producer
Robert Stromberg, Visual Effects Designer
Edwardo Mendez, Compositing Supervisor
Ken Gorrell, Special Effects Coordinator

LIFE AFTER PEOPLE -- History Channel -- Flight 33 Productions for History Television Network Productions, A&E Television Networks
Matt Drummond, Visual Effects Supervisor
Max Ivins, Visual Effects Supervisor
Steffen Schlachtenhaufen, Visual Effects Producer
Melinka Thompson-Godoy, Visual Effects Producer
Andrea D’Amico, Visual Effects Producer
Danny Kim, Matte Painter/Compositor
Dave Morton, Lead Visual Effects Artist
Jim May, Digital Artist
Casey Benn, Digital Artist

TIN MAN -- "Part 1" -- Sci Fi Channel -- RHI Ent.
Lee Wilson, Visual Effects Supervisor
Lisa Sepp-Wilson, Visual Effects Producer
Sébastien Bergeron, Digital Effects Supervisor
Todd Liddiard, Lead Visual Effecs Compositor
Philippe Thibault, Lead Visual Effects Compositor
Les Quinn, CGI Supervisor
Mike Goddard, Lead CGI Artist
Ken Lee, Lead CGI Artist
Andrew Domachowski, Lead CGI Artist

For a complete list of Emmy nominees, go to http://cdn.emmys.tv/media/releases/2008/rel-pte60-mainjuly17.php#noms

VES releases white-paper on VFX

The Visual Effects Society (VES) has published its first ever white paper, entitled "The State of Visual Effects in the Entertainment Industry."
The paper, drawn from inputs from numerous sources including a VES think-tank discussion, the VES Executive Committee and others, examines existing conditions within the VFX industry and how these issues affect the entertainment business on a macro scale, from workflow to the interaction of personnel within various departments. The white-paper also assesses the extraordinary impact that the digital revolution has caused.
"The VES is the foremost knowledge-base in the world concerning VFX and we feel that we have a unique perspective as to how the work of visual artists and technologists intersect to have a huge impact on the business model bottom line," said VES Executive Director Eric Roth. "We are very excited to publish this first paper, which will serve as a foundation for future white papers delving into significant issues which face not only our craft, but the entertainment industry as a whole," Roth added.
For the white paper: http://www.visualeffectssociety.com/documents/VES_StateofVFX_3.pdf